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Canine: Diseases by Name


Acute Hemorrhagic Diarrhea Syndrome (AHDS or HGE)
 A potentially life-threatening intestinal condition of dogs that manifests as sudden onset bloody, watery diarrhea called acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (previously called hemorrhagic gastroenteritis or HGE.)
Addison's Disease (Hypoadrenocorticism)
 Also called hypoadrenocorticism, Addison's disease results from a deficiency of the hormones that enable adaption to stress. Signs can be vague or can culminate in a circulatory crisis.
Adrenal Tumor Treatment in Cushing's Syndrome
 While only approximately 15% of canine Cushing's syndrome patients have adrenal tumors, half of these patients will have a benign tumor and half will have malignant tumors. The choice of therapy may well depend on which type it is.
Adverse Reactions to Spot-on Flea and Tick Products
 With spot-on preventives, there is the possibility that certain individuals will have adverse local reactions to one or more ingredients in the product.
Allergies: Atopic Dermatitis (Airborne)
 We get hay fever; dogs get itchy skin. This condition is usually seasonal - but not always - and many treatments are available. Find out the causes and what you can do to relieve your pet's discomfort.
Alopecia X is a Pattern of Baldness
 It may be that Alopecia X is not one hair loss-causing disease but several and we simply do not know how to distinguish them.
Anaplasmosis
 Anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease. Two forms of anaplasmosis are known: granulocytic anaplasmosis and infectious cyclic thrombocytopenia.A dog can have both infections at the same time
Anorexia, or Lack of Appetite, in Dogs and Cats
 Loss of appetite is one of the most important criteria in determining if a pet is significantly ill or just having a minor malady. When the veterinarian says the pet has anorexia, it means the pet is not eating.
Arthritis in Pets: What can be Done?
 Newer concepts of arthritis management involve proper exercise to maintain muscle mass and decrease pain; maintaining lean a body weight is critical.
Atopic Dermatitis in Dogs
 Atopic animals will usually rub, lick, chew, bite or scratch at their feet, muzzle, ears, armpits or groin, causing hair loss, and reddening and thickening of the skin.
Atrial Fibrillation in Dogs and Cats
 Atrial fibrillation (sometimes called "A fib") is an arrhythmia, an irregularity of the heart's rhythm.
Aural Hematoma in Dogs and Cats
 A hematoma is swelling created by a broken blood vessel after bleeding has occurred inside tissue. Hematomas within the ear flaps (aural hematomas) occur when head shaking breaks a blood vessel. The ear flap may partially or completely swell with blood. This condition is more common in dogs but can occur in cats as well.
Bacterial Diarrheas in Puppies & Kittens
 Bacterial diarrheas are generally a nuisance for the adult animal but can be lethal to a small puppy, kitten, or even a human baby. Most of these problems stem from contaminated food or fecal contaminated environment. Raw food diets for pets dramatically increase the risk of human exposure.
Bad Breath in Dogs and Cats
 Halitosis, also called bad breath, is as an offensive odor emanating from the oral cavity. Bad breath is a common presenting pet odor complaint. Causes may be commonly be related to the mouth or rarely related to other health problems.
Benign Sebaceous Gland Tumors
 In older dogs, what looks like a viral wart is probably a sebaceous gland tumor; while there is a 98% chance it is benign, it will not be going away any time soon. Sebaceous gland tumors occur on any location, often in large numbers, and usually in older dogs (and occasionally in older cats).
Biliary Mucocele is a Surgical Emergency in Dogs
 The goal is to remove the gall bladder before it ruptures. If it has already ruptured, tissue damaged by the rupture must be cleansed or removed.
Bladder Stones (4)
 There are many types of bladder stones each with a tendency to form in a specific breed or species under specific conditions. Here is information on some common forms of stone, with more to come in the future!
Bladder Stones in Dogs and Cats: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic
 There are many types of bladder stones, and each tends to form in a specific breed or species under specific conditions. Here are some common forms.
Blastomycosis is a Systemic Fungal infection Affecting Dogs and Cats
 Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection that affects dogs and cats. Blastomycosis appears in only certain geographic areas in North America, most often the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Tennessee, and St. Lawrence River valleys. Infection with Blastomyces occurs when a cat or dog inhales the fungal spores into the lungs.
Bloat - The Mother of All Emergencies
 A serious, life-threatening emergency. Learn to recognize the signs to get your dog to the vet in time to possibly save his life.
Bloody Nose (Epistaxis) in Dogs and Cats
 Some blood-tinged droplets sneezed on the floor might be the only sign or there might be a steady bloody drip from one or both nostrils. These findings are alarming as well as messy and we want to identify the cause and take care of it promptly. The problem is that there are many causes and not all of them are localized to the nose, and many are serious diseases.
Brachycelphalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome in Flat-Faced Pets
 Brachycephalic means short-faced, sometimes called flat-faced. Short-faced breeds of dogs have their own share of unique problems. Be familiar with what they are.
Breast Cancer Happens in Companion Animals
 But it still seems to shock people to learn that dogs, cats, rabbits, rats and a host of other domestic species can get breast cancer, too. Since the aim of Breast Cancer Awareness Month is to raise awareness, our aim here is to wave the flag for those who can’t speak for themselves and raise awareness of mammary cancer in companion animals. We also want people to know that breast cancer and mammary gland cancer are the same disease; it’s just called by a different name in other species.
Brucellosis in Dogs
 Brucellosis is an important venereal disease in many species. It does not usually come up in pet ownership because most pet dogs are not used for breeding. Once someone has decided to breed their dog, though, it behooves them to know all about this disease, particularly since it can be transmitted to humans.
Calcium Phosphorus Balance in Dogs and Cats
 In renal insufficiency, phosphorus is not anyone's friend. The failing kidney is no longer good at getting rid of excess phosphorus and phosphorus levels in the blood begin to rise.
Cataracts in Diabetic Dogs
 Most diabetic dogs will develop cataracts and go blind. This FAQ can assist the owners of diabetic dogs in knowing what to expect and in decision-making regarding cataract surgery.
Cataracts in Dogs and Cats
 Cataracts are an important cause of blindness in the dog. Through special surgery, it may be possible to restore vision. Would you recognize a cataract if you saw one in your cat or dog?
Cauda Equina Syndrome is Painful for Dogs
 The most common symptom is pain. Treating lumbosacral stenosis depends on the cause and severity of the symptoms.
Cervical (Neck) Disk Disease in Dogs and Cats
 The pet can experience just some neck pain or complete paralysis of all four legs and no pain perception. An acute onset is an absolute emergency.
Cherry Eye in Dogs and Cats
 Has a red lump suddenly appeared in the corner of your pet's eye? What does it mean and what should you do?
Chocolate Toxicity Signs in Dogs
 What should you watch for and do when your dog has eaten chocolate?
Chronic Bronchitis in Dogs is Neither Infectious nor Contagious
 Chronic bronchitis is a non-infectious inflammatory condition affecting the lining (mucosa) of the large airways. Dogs with chronic bronchitis generally have a persistent hacking cough.
Chylothorax is more Common in Cats than Dogs
 When the fluid filling the chest is lymph, the problem is called chylothorax. The fluid is milky when it is drained from the chest, and its whiteness comes being from fat. Chylothorax represents a specific problem and requires specific therapy.
Clostridium difficile Becoming more Common in North America
 It is unclear if C. difficile can be transmitted from pets to people. The types of C. difficile found in pets are often the same as those found in people, including the epidemic strain ribotype 027/NAP1. So it makes sense that C. difficile could potentially be transmitted between people and animals, but there is still no conclusive proof.
Clostridium perfringens Causes Diarrhea in Dogs and Cats
 When pets get chronic diarrhea, one of the tests that sooner or later comes up is the test for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium and it produces an unpleasant toxin.
Coccidia Infects Intestines of Cats and Dogs
 Coccidia are parasites that commonly infect young animals housed in groups. Coccidia causes a bloody diarrhea that can be severe enough to be life threatening for a small animal. It is a common infection.
Colitis Causes Gooey Diarrhea in Dogs and Cats
 Colitis means inflammation of the colon and that spells diarrhea - often with fresh blood or mucus - and straining and discomfort for the pet, as well as a mess to clean up.
Congestive Heart Failure in Dogs and Cats
 In congestive heart failure, fluid is retained in specific parts of the body, depending on the side of the heart that is diseased.
Corneal Ulcers and Erosions in Dogs and Cats
 A scratch or scrape on the eye is extremely painful, causing squinting, redness and excess tears. What do you need to know about taking care of a pet with this condition? Read about the diagnosis and treatment of corneal ulcers and erosions.
Cryptorchidism (Retained Testicles) in Dogs and Cats
 Cryptorchidism is a condition in which a male’s testicles have not descended (dropped) into the scrotum. Some cryptorchid animals are sterile and some are not.
Cryptosporidium is a Particularly Nasty Type of Coccidia for Pets
 Cryptosporidium are similar to Coccidia and, until recent advances in molecular biology showed us otherwise, they were believed to be simply another species of Coccidia. They have some particularly unpleasant features.
Cushing's Disease (Hyperadrenocorticism) (7)
 This condition represents a classical excess in cortisone-type hormone circulation in the body. Both cats and dogs can be affected (though it is primarily a dog's disease) and the onset is insidious. We have assembled an information center to answer all your questions on this relatively common hormone imbalance.
Cushing's Disease (Hyperadrenocorticism): You are being redirected to updated information on this topic
 This condition represents a classical excess in cortisone-type hormone circulation in the body. Both cats and dogs can be affected (though it is primarily a dog's disease) and the onset is insidious. We have assembled an information center to answer all your questions on this relatively common hormone imbalance.
Cushing's Syndrome (Hyperadrenocorticism): Description
 Excess thirst, excess urination, excess appetite, poor hair coat and a pot-bellied appearance. This is a classical disease for which lots of information is available. We have attempted to include an explanation of this complicated problem and all the latest information.
Degenerative Myelopathy Leads to Paralysis of Dog's Hindquarters
 Degenerative myelopathy is a progressive disease of undetermined cause that affects a dog's spinal cord. It results in a loss of coordination of the hind legs, which progresses to weakness and then to paralysis of the hindquarters.
Degenerative Valve Disease Affects Hearts of Dogs and Cats
 Degenerative valve disease (DVD) refers to a noninfectious degeneration of the cardiac valves. DVD accounts for about 75% of cardiovascular disease in dogs but is uncommon in cats.
Demodectic Mange in Dogs
 This condition is also called red mange. It is not contagious, but it does have a hereditary component. What are the options for treatment?
Demodicosis (Red Mange) is Caused by Mites on Dogs
 Demodicosis (red mange) is a skin disease caused by a small mite not visible to the naked eye. This mite lives down in the root of the hair. All normal dogs have a small population of mites, but only certain animals will get a disease from mite overgrowth. In some cases, the tendency to develop demodectic mange runs in families.
Diabetes Mellitus: Introduction
 Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease involving the body's handling of sugar. Learn about some of the basics of this common hormone problem of dogs and cats.
Diabetic Dog Diet
 The dietary approaches for diabetic dogs are very different than those for diabetic cats.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Dogs and Cats
 Ketoacidosis is one of the most extreme complications of diabetes mellitus that can be experienced. Unfortunately, most cases of ketoacidosis are in patients who were not previously known to be diabetic so the owner and pet must deal with two serious diagnoses at the same time.
Diarrhea and Vomiting: First Aid
 Diarrhea is the frequent evacuation of watery stools. Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Dogs and Cats
 Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the most common acquired heart diseases in dogs. DCM is a disease of the heart muscle.
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) in Dogs
 Dogs nose around in all sorts of things but they should not get crusty or ulcerated noses. When they do, there is generally a disease afoot and biopsy may well be needed to determine what is going on. Discoid lupus, or DLE, is a common disease of the leather of the nose. Thankfully, it is usually easily treated and there are many options.
Diskospondylitis (Intervertebral Disk Infection) in Dogs and Cats
 Diskospondylitis is a bacterial/fungal infection that can reach the intervertebral disks several ways.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) in Dogs and Cats
 Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an extreme complication of numerous already life-threatening conditions leading to the deregulation of the body's natural mechanisms of blood clotting and blood clot dissolving.
Distemper in Dogs
 Most of us have heard of distemper infection for dogs and gather it is very bad. The basic vaccine for dogs is the distemper shot, which vaccinates against distemper, parvovirus and some minor kennel cough agents. Luckily, this is all most people ever hear of distemper.
Distichiasis Requires Permanent Eyelash Removal in Dogs
 Distichiasis is quite common in dogs. Distichiasis is a condition in which extra hairs grow out of the eyelash area.
Dry Eye (Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca) in Dogs and Cats
 Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or KCS, is a fancy way of saying the eye is dry. There are many causes of dry eye, but the most common one appears to be immune mediated destruction of the tear-producing gland tissue.
Dust Mites: Minimizing Exposure in Dogs and Cats
 Dust mites feed off of skin scales and dander shed by humans and animals. Mites love bedding, carpeting, and anywhere they can find a hiding place with the likelihood of skin dander being present. Dust mites also require a relatively high humidity in the home to truly thrive.
Ear Infections (Otitis) in Dogs
 Did you know the most common cause of recurrent ear infections is allergic skin disease? What do you do to keep the ear scratching and head shaking from becoming chronic?
Ectopic Ureters in Dogs
 If your puppy has an ectopic ureter or even two, the only chance at resolving the incontinence is through surgery. This is expensive and often unsuccessful so it is important to know what you are getting into.
Ehrlichia Infection in Dogs
 Ehrlichia are a type of bacteria that infect and live within the white blood cells of their hosts. Different types of Ehrlichia live in different types of white blood cells. Hosts can be human, pet, or wild animals. They are spread from host to host by tick bites.
Elbow Dysplasia Causes Front Limb Lameness in Young Dogs
 Elbow dysplasia is the most common cause of front limb lameness in the young dog, especially of the larger breeds. Elbow dysplasia can take several different forms.
Elbow Hygromas Can be Uncomplicated or Complicated in Dogs
 The usual patient for this condition is a short-haired large breed dog, usually an adolescent, brought in for assessment of a fluid-filled swelling at the point of one or both elbows. This is the classical presentation of the elbow hygroma, the body's response to chronic trauma to the point of the elbow.
Emptying a Dog's Anal Sacs
 Is your pet scooting? Smelling a fishy foul odor? Noticing some licking under the tail? Dogs with impacted anal sacs usually scoot their rear on the ground in an attempt to empty the glands. Some dogs will lick their anal area and other dogs will chase their tails. Cats often lick the fur off just under their tails.
Entropion in Dogs
 Entropion is an uncomfortable or painful condition in which the animal's eyelids roll inward, allowing the eyelashes (or other hair) to rub against the cornea and irritate it. The upper and/or lower eyelids can be involved, and the condition can occur in either one eye or both.
Epulis Tumor in Dogs' Mouths
 Epulis is the fourth most common tumor found in the canine mouth. There are three types.
Euthanasia of Companion Animals
 The decision to euthanize a pet should be one that you always look back upon and know that the best decision was made and that you would make the same decision again in the same situation. So how do you know if it is time?
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Dogs and Cats
 Generally a high digestibility diet is the best choice for an EPI patient. These foods are low in fiber and fat and may be especially helpful for patients with trouble gaining weight. Many animals simply use enzymes mixed with their regular food.
False Pregnancy in Dogs
 We get a lot of questions about female dogs having their menstrual periods. In fact, the menstrual cycle is a primate phenomenon; dogs have an estrus cycle that includes a period of false pregnancy. This false pregnancy can last for weeks with the dog producing milk and sometimes mothering a soft toy.
Fibrocartilaginous Embolism (FCE) in Dogs
 Imagine your dog is happily playing in the yard, jumps up to catch a ball, lands badly, and comes up not just lame but weak or even paralyzed in a back leg. The toes knuckle under, perhaps. Maybe his back tilts downward, his rear legs too weak to rise all the way up. You check him over, trying to find where it hurts and it simply does not seem to hurt at all.
Flatulence in Dogs
 Flatulence is a normal biological function.
Flea Anemia in Cats and Dogs
 We all know fleas are a nuisance and can lead to itching and dermatitis, but did you know a heavy flea infestation can be life threatening? The owners of most victims were not aware of the problem. Read more about this condition and who is most at risk.
Food Allergies in Dogs and Cats
 Have an itchy pet all year round? Maybe there is a food allergy. Just changing to a new diet probably won't be enough. Find out what to do here and see if your pet fits the profile for this condition.
Fractures in Dogs and Cats
 If this article has caught your attention, it may be that your pet has had the misfortune of suffering a fractured bone. This is a traumatic experience for both you and your pet and there are a few things you should know to help both of you make the best of a bad situation!
Glaucoma in Dogs and Cats
 Glaucoma is an eye disease that can cause significant pain and lead to blindness.
Glomerulonephritis in Dogs and Cats
 In glomerular disease, holes are punched out in the filtration system, allowing molecules that the body needs to keep entering the urine flow and be urinated away. Chronic inflammation leads to the holes in the filtration system.
Granulomatous Meningoencephalitis (GME) in Dogs and Cats
 Most people have never heard of GME or any other form of central nervous system reticulosis until they have a dog with progressive neurologic disease. Frequently what the owner is told is that GME is an inflammatory disease that acts in many ways like cancer and that very little is known about it.
Hard to Regulate Diabetic Dogs
 Some dogs just seem completely unaffected by even high doses of insulin and it is important to have a step-by-step plan to rule out causes of insulin resistance so that regulation can be achieved.
Heart Murmurs in Dogs and Cats
 A heart murmur is one of several types of abnormal sounds your veterinarian can hear when listening to your pet's heart with a stethoscope. The murmur itself is not treated; the underlying cause of the murmur may or may not be treated.
Heartworm Information Center: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic.
 Heartworm is a parasite that most dog owners and many cat owners have to be concerned about. The more you know, the better protected your pet can become. We have put together an information center to take you through the parasite's biology, the preventive medications, diagnosis, and treatment.
Heartworm: The Parasite
 Heartworm is a serious problem in many areas of the country. What questions do you have about the disease, its treatment and its prevention?
Helicobacter Infection in Dogs and Cats
 This bacterium is not new but focus on it by both the veterinary and human medical community certainly is. The role of Helicobacter in stomach ulcer formation is now well recognized. If you have a pet with chronic nausea, you may want to be familiar with this infection.
Hemangiopericytoma in Dogs
 Hemangiopericytoma is a common tumor in dogs. It does not spread the way one normally thinks of cancer. It does tend to recur at the site where it was originally removed. If left alone, this tumor eventually becomes inoperable, disfiguring, and lethal though generally this takes years.
Hemangiosarcoma is Blood or Skin Cancer in Dogs and Cats
 Hemangiosarcoma has three classic locations: skin and subcutaneous forms, splenic forms, and heart-based forms. With the exception of the skin form, which can often be eliminated by surgery, a diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma is bad news.
Herpes Infections in Dogs
 Canine herpes is more of a reproductive problem than a respiratory one; in fact, most infected dogs do not appear to get sick at all. Instead the infections manifests in the pregnancy as resorption of the litter of puppies, abortion, still birth, or death of puppies within a few weeks of life. Transmission occurs through direct contact (sexual contact will do it but the usual route is simply normal nosing, licking, and sniffing) between an infected and uninfected dog.
High Blood Pressure in our Pets
 High blood pressure is an extremely important concern in human medicine. High stress lifestyle, smoking, and high salt diet all contribute to this potentially dangerous condition and virtually everyone in the U.S. knows how serious it can be. But what about our pets? They don't smoke or worry about the mortgage and they don't deposit cholesterol in their blood vessels. They do, however, get high blood pressure, especially in age and here is what you probably should know.
Hip Dislocation in Dogs and Cats
 Hip dislocation is the common term for the separation of the femoral head from the pelvic acetabulum. The more medical term is hip luxation, and you will probably hear your veterinarian use this term. In order for the hip to luxate, trauma must be severe enough to break the capital ligament. The femur almost always luxates the same way: up and forward.
Hip Dysplasia in Dogs
 Hip dysplasia is a common condition of large breed dogs and many dog owners have heard of it but the fact is that anyone owning a large breed dog or considering a large breed dog as a pet should become familiar with this condition. The larger the dog, the more likely the development of this problem becomes, particularly as the dog ages.
Histiocytoma is a Benign Skin Growth in Dogs
 The histiocytoma is a tumor originating from what is called a Langerhans cell. This cell lives in the skin and serves as part of the immune system by processing incoming antigens and presenting them to other immunologic cells.
Hookworms in Cats and Dogs
 The adult hookworm lives in the small intestine of its host. It hangs on to the intestinal wall using its six sharp teeth and unlike other worms that just absorb the digested food through their skin as it passes by, the hookworm drinks its host's blood. Humans can get hookworms too.
Horner's Syndrome in Cats and Dogs
 Slight squint, small pupil, raised third eyelid... it all looks pretty strange, as if something is wrong with the eye. In fact, it is not the eye itself that is the problem, but rather it is a nerve problem. Read more about this symptom and its causes.
Hot Spots (Pyotraumatic Dermatitis) in Dogs and Cats
 Hot spots are weepy, wet, red and sometimes bloody when they are fresh, and dry and scabby when they are resolving.
Hot Spots in Dogs and Cats
 A hot spot is a superficial skin infection that results when the normal skin bacteria overrun the skin's defenses as a result of damage to the skin surface.
Hydrocephalus (Water on the Brain) in Dogs and Cats
 This condition literally means "water head" and is more commonly referred to as water on the brain. The central nervous system is bathed in cerebrospinal fluid that is secreted by chambers inside the brain. When fluid builds up, there is no room in the brain for extra volume and disaster can result. This condition is particularly common in dome-headed puppies.
Hypercalcemia in Dogs
 Elevated calcium starts with the bones. They receive an inappropriate message to mobilize their calcium. This message is either from excess parathyroid hormone or from high amounts of parathyroid hormone-related protein. When calcium is removed from the bones, all that is left is a fibrous scaffold, which is not really strong enough to support us. Our bones break, even fold.
Hyperlipidemia in Dogs and Cats
 Hyperlipidemia is a general term for disorders in which too many fat molecules (called lipids) circulate in the blood. The two most important lipids in pets are cholesterol and triglycerides.
Hypocalcemia (Low Blood Calcium) in Cats and Dogs
 Calcium is such a crucial component of our biochemistry that virtually any complete blood panel, whether human or veterinary, will include a measurement of calcium. Our bodies go to tremendous lengths to regulate our blood calcium levels within a narrow range. We need a storage source to draw upon for when we need more circulating calcium as well as a system to unload excess.
Hypoglycemia in Toy Breed Dogs
 These itty bitty babies have trouble maintaining body temperature, cut their baby teeth in late and thus have trouble with kibbled foods, and they have difficulty maintaining blood sugar. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) creates listlessness, incoordination (the brain cannot burn fat or protein and relies entirely on sugar), and even seizures.
Hypothyroidism in Dogs
 Healthy skin and a normal hair coat are the result of many external and internal factors. Several glands in the body produce hormones that are important for a normal skin surface and hair coat.
Hypothyroidism is most Common Hormone Imbalance of Dogs
 Hypothyroidism is the most common hormone imbalance in dogs. While it seems like it would be a simple subject, there are complexities.
Ice or Ice Water Does Not Cause Bloat in Dogs
 Neither ice nor ice water will cause stomach spasms in a dog that lead to bloat, despite a 2007 viral email that still surfaces every year.
Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia (IMHA) in Dogs and Cats
 We depend on red blood cells to bring oxygen to our tissues and carry waste gases away. Without enough red blood cells we die. We can lose blood cells from bleeding, but sometimes our immune system gets confused and destroys them by mistake. What can we do when this happens?
Immune-Mediated Thrombocytopenia (IMT)
 Platelets can be mistaken by the immune system as invaders. When this happens, antibodies coat the platelets and the spleen's phagocytes remove them in numbers up to 10 times greater than the normal platelet removal rate.
Immunotherapy for Allergies in Dogs and Cats
 Most people know someone who gets periodic "allergy shots" for airborne allergies. What this means is that an individually-made serum is created using small amounts of allergens (proteins against which the person reacts). It works for dogs and cats, too.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Dogs and Cats
 Does your pet seem to have chronic vomiting or diarrhea? Those can be signs of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Influenza Strains in Dogs
 Two strains of canine influenza are seen in the United States: H3N8, first seen in 2004, and H3N2, first seen in 2015.
Insulinoma in Dogs and Cats
 Unfortunately, most insulinomas in dogs and cats are malignant. This is bad news but the good news is that regardless of this fact, surgery is still helpful as the bulk of the tumor (if not all of it) can be removed.
Intervertebral Disk Disease in Dogs
 There are two types of disease that can afflict the intervertebral disk causing the disk to press painfully against the spinal cord. One type is a much slower degenerative process than the other.
Intestinal Lymphangiectasia (Protein-losing Enteropathy) in Dogs
 Protein-losing enteropathy is a fancy way of saying that protein is being lost from the body through the intestine. This is a serious problem as the body's proteins are not easily replaced and the only way to replace them involves the absorption of protein constituents from the intestine.
Iris Coloboma in Dogs and Cats
 The iris coloboma, which is relatively uncommon, does not affect vision, nor does it progress to anything else.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Dogs
 Irritable bowel syndrome is a psychosomatic disease. This means that it is the activity of the mind that causes the symptoms. Most people do not have difficulty imagining having so much anxiety that diarrhea results. Chronic anxiety can similarly result in chronic diarrhea. This is basically what irritable bowel syndrome is all about.
Kennel Cough in Dogs
 Infectious tracheobronchitis, commonly known as kennel cough, is a complex of infections rather than infection by a single agent. Find out how infection occurs, how serious it may be, how it is treated, and understand the vaccination.
Kidney Dialysis: Is it for your Pet?
 Most every animal hospital can provide diuresis: a therapy where extra fluid beyond what the patient can drink is provided, thus giving the kidney its medium so that it can remove toxic waste. This works well but there comes a time when even with plenty of fluids, the sick kidney simply cannot get the toxins out. For most patients this is the end of the line. In fact, dialysis may be another choice, though it is substantially more expensive than diuresis and dialysis centers for pets are still few and far between.
Kidney Failure (Chronic) Links for Additional Information
 See other sources of information on renal disease.
Kidney Failure (Chronic) in Dogs and Cats: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic
 The kidneys are made of thousands of tiny filtration units called nephrons. Once a nephron is destroyed by a disease, it cannot regenerate; this means that we all have a finite number of nephrons to last us our whole lives.
Kidney Failure in Dogs and Cats: Where to Begin
 Chronic kidney, or renal, failure is common among geriatric pets. As treatment frequently is long term, owners should understand their options. Topics discussed include definitions, medications used in treatment, diagnostics/helpful testing, and monitoring.
Laryngeal Paralysis in Dogs
 Laryngeal paralysis results when the abductor muscles of the larynx cannot work properly. This means no expanding and opening of the larynx for a deep breath; the laryngeal folds simply flop weakly and flaccidly. This means that when one needs a deep breath, one does not get one. This can create tremendous anxiety (imagine attempting to take a deep breath and finding that you simply cannot). Anxiety leads to more rapid breathing and more distress. A respiratory crisis from the partial obstruction can emerge creating an emergency and even death.
Lead Poisoning in Dogs and Cats
 The most common cause of lead poisoning in pets is ingestion of lead-based paint. Although lead-based paint is no longer available in the United States, it was used in buildings for many years.
Legg-Perthes Disease in Dogs
 This disease produces lameness of the hip joint in young, small breed dogs.
Leptospirosis and Your Pet: A CDC Fact Sheet
 A fact sheet from the CDC answers questions about the risk of people getting leptospirosis from their pets.
Leptospirosis in Dogs
 This infection can be caught by humans as well as by dogs. Learn about the leptospira organism, and how we test, treat and vaccinate against the disease (in dogs, that is).
Lick Granuloma in Dogs
 Lick granuloma (acral lick granuloma, acral lick dermatitis) is a common, stubborn skin disease that is directly caused by the dog licking an area of the body.
Lipomas in Dogs and Cats
 Oftentimes a lump turns out to be "just a lipoma" or simply a fatty tumor and nothing to worry about.
Lithotripsy in Dogs and Cats
 Lithotripsy is a funny word for a minimally invasive alternative to urinary stone removal surgery.
Liver Tumors and Cancers in Dogs and Cats
 After blood testing and medical imaging has led to a diagnosis of liver tumor, many questions must be answered in order to make proper choices.
Lyme Disease in Dogs
 The first lesson to be learned about the Lyme disease infection is that it manifests completely differently in man's best friend compared with the human experience. In dogs, Lyme disease is a minor infection not nearly worthy of the attention it has received.
Lymphocytic Leukemia in Dogs
 What is leukemia in dogs and why is it bad? Learn about the most common forms of leukemia for dogs: the lymphocytic forms.
Lymphoma
 This form of cancer, also called lymphosarcoma, is the most common malignancy of dogs, cats, and humans. A plentitude of information is available, information that is necessary in order to make intelligent decisions about an affected pet.
Lymphoma in Dogs
 This form of cancer, also called lymphosarcoma, is the most common malignancy of dogs, cats, and humans. Much information is available, information that is necessary in order to make intelligent decisions about an affected pet.
MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Dogs and Cats
 In dogs and cats, the most common conditions associated with MRSA tend to be skin infections, post-operative incisional infections and wound infections. The bacteria have also been isolated from the urinary tract, auditory canal, skin, eye and joints.
Malassezia Dermatitis (Yeast Infection of Dog's Skin)
 Technically known as Malessezia Dermatitis, this is one of the stinkiest and itchiest conditions treated in veterinary dermatology, and it is one of the chief reasons a previously well-controlled allergic dog might suddenly increase itching. What to do? Find some answers here.
Malignant Melanoma in Dogs and Cats
 While a good fur coat generally protects our pets from sun-induced malignant melanoma, a melanoma diagnosis is still just as serious and potentially deadly in our pets as it is for people.
Malignant Thyroid Tumors in Dogs and Cats
 In dogs, there is an 87% chance that a thyroid growth is malignant. Cats with thyroid carcinomas are usually hyperthyroid.
Mammary Tumors in Dogs
 Women get breast cancer, female dogs get mammary cancer. What many pet owners don't know is that the incidence of mammary tumor development in dogs is higher than in women, as one in four unspayed female dogs are affected. This incidence is huge, yet awareness among owners of female dogs is lacking.
Managing Megaesophagus in Dogs
 Familiarizing yourself with a variety of appropriate megaesophagus management techniques can help you provide a plan for your individual dog.
Marijuana Toxicity in Dogs
 The usual pet toxicity case involves a dog that has inadvertently eaten a stash of marijuana. In the dog, clinical signs typically begin 30 to 90 minutes after the marijuana has been eaten. Because THC is stored in the body's fat deposits, the effects of marijuana ingestion can last for days.
Mast Cell Tumors in Dogs and Cats
 Most mast cell tumors arise in the skin but technically they can arise anywhere that mast cells are found. Mast cell tumors are notoriously invasive and difficult to treat.
Masticatory Myositis (Eosinophilic Myositis) in Dogs
 It may start suddenly one day or come on gradually. The dog seems to be in pain when his mouth opens or he attempts to chew. Perhaps he will not open his mouth at all. In time, the muscles around the head (particularly the temple region) hollow out, giving the dog a thin faced look. What is happening?
Medial Luxating Patella in Dogs
 The medial luxating patella, commonly called trick knee, is an extremely common problem in toy breed dogs. An owner typically notices a little skip in the dog's step. The dog may even run on three legs, holding one hind leg up, and then miraculously be back on four legs as if nothing has happened.
Medications for Degenerative Arthritis in Dogs and Cats
 Arthritis pain causes discomfort and loss of mobility in aged pets, and there are numerous remedies on the market. Which ones can be combined? Which are proven reliable and which may only work in some individuals?
Megaesophagus in Dogs
 Do you know the difference between vomiting and regurgitation? If your pet has megaesophagus you probably know all too well. Read about the latest in treatment and testing (and see a graphic interactive demonstration).
Meibomian Gland Tumors in Dogs
 Meibomian gland tumors are tiny, slow-growing tumors that form in the meibomian glands of the eyelids.
Meningioma in Dogs and Cats
 Meningioma is the most common brain tumor of cats and dogs. Meningiomas are generally benign. In dogs, seizures are the most common sign. In cats, signs are more vague and consist of listlessness and behavior changes.
Mitral Insufficiency and Heart Failure in Dogs: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic.
 When the heart is not able to pump out the volume of blood it receives (backward failure) or cannot pump out enough blood to supply oxygen to the body (forward failure), the goal is to avoid or resolve a life-threatening crisis. Once the short-term disaster is resolved, we look to a more long-term therapy plan.
Myasthenia Gravis in Dogs and Cats
 Myasthenia gravis is a disease that interrupts the way nerves communicate with muscles. There is no treatment for the congenital form. The acquired form, which is an autoimmune disease, is treated medically with immunosuppressive agents.
Neuropathic Pain in Dogs and Cats
 People who experience neuropathic pain describe it as "a pins and needles sensation," tingling, burning, itching, numbness or cold, and sometimes feeling as if they had received a small electric shock. Grades of neuropathic pain that have been established in human medicine are definite, probable and possible. Pets cannot describe their pain to us but we believe it's likely to be like what people have.
Nicotine Poisoning in Pets
 Everyone knows the Surgeon General's warning about cigarette smoking but what about cigarette eating? Nicotine poisoning is a real concern anywhere that a pet may find cigarettes, nicotine gums, nicotine patches, e-cigarette filter cartridges, e-liquid, or e-juice. Dogs, particularly puppies, tend to chew things up first and ask questions later.
Normal Joints Look Like this in Dogs and Cats
 A pet does not have to be a senior citizen to require joint care supplements or physical therapy. Degenerative arthritis can result from an injury or can be the result of genetics and joint conformation.
Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Dogs and Cats
 When squamous cell carcinoma occurs in the mouth and throat, it's called oral squamous cell carcinoma. In these oral cases, the lesion is usually located on the gums or tonsils.
Osteosarcoma in Dogs
 Osteosarcoma is by far the most common bone tumor in dogs. We see 2 to 3 cases a year. Owners need information on which to make proper treatment decisions.
Otitis Externa Treatment in Dogs
 Otitis externa is an inflammation or infection of the external ear canal. Bacteria, yeast, ear mites, and allergies can all cause it. Addressing this problem involves four steps.
Ovarian Remnant Syndrome in Dogs and Cats
 The spayed female pet has no ovaries and should not display any signs of a heat cycle but what happens if she does anyway? Where might these hormones be coming from?
Pancreatitis in Dogs
 In pancreatitis, inflammation disrupts the normal integrity of the pancreas. Digestive enzymes that are normally safely stored in granules are released prematurely where they digest the body itself. The result can be a metabolic catastrophe. The living tissue becomes further inflamed and the tissue damage quickly involves the adjacent liver. Toxins released from this orgy of tissue destruction are released into the circulation and can cause a body-wide inflammatory response.
Pannus in Dogs
 Pannus is an eye disease that can result in blindness if it is not treated
Panosteitis: Growing Pains in Dogs
 Pano is often referred to as growing pains because of the similarity to the human malady.
Panosteitis: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic.
 Panosteitis is a disease of the fatty bone marrow. That damage results in secondary effects involving bone. The condition is cyclic in nature, waxing and waning under conditions of stress.
Paralyzed Dogs: How to Care for Them
 Spinal damage leading to rear leg paralysis is not uncommon. These "downer" dogs have special needs. Rarely is rear paralysis temporary so management requires commitment. It is not for everyone and it is important to understand what one is getting into; though, for the right owner and patient, management can be rewarding.
Parvovirus Infection: Diagnosis
 A puppy with a bloody diarrhea could have a parasite problem, a virus other than parvovirus, stress colitis, an intestinal foreign body, or may simply have eaten something that disagreed with him. It is important to confirm the diagnosis of parvovirus before embarking on what could be the wrong treatment.
Parvovirus Infection: Physical Illness and Treatment
 Treatment for parvoviral infection centers on supportive care. This means that the clinical problems that come up in the course of the infection are addressed individually with the goal of keeping the patient alive long enough for an immune response to generate. We do not have effective antiviral drugs and must rely on the patient's immune system for cure.
Parvovirus Information Center: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic
 Our Canine Parvovirus Information Center has several articles that explain the disease, how your dog may contract it, how to prevent it, and how to care for dogs that have been infected.
Parvovirus: Vaccination and Prevention
 We vaccinate puppies in a series, giving a vaccine every 2 to 4 weeks until age 16 weeks. By age 16 weeks, we can be certain that maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine should be able to take. It should be recognized that some individuals, especially those of well-vaccinated mothers, must be vaccinated out to 20 weeks unless a high titer vaccine is used.
Patellar Luxation in Dogs Ranges in Severity
 Patella luxation, or knee dislocation, can range in severity from a patella that can be dislocated only in extreme extension and then snaps readily into place, to a patella that is permanently luxated medially (towards the center of the dog's body).
Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Dogs and Cats: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic.
 Patent ductus arteriosus is the most common congenital heart defect in dogs.
Pemphigus Foliaceus in Dogs and Cats
 The pemphigus complex is a group immune-mediated skin diseases involving inappropriate immunological attack against one of the normal layers of the skin. Different types of pemphigus involve different areas of the skin.
Perianal Fistulae in Dogs
 The anus of a dog with perianal fistulae will show deep open crevices and some oozing pus all around the sphincter. This condition waxes and wanes but ultimately over time is progressive, ulcerating the surface of the anus and its surroundings.
Physical Therapy for Arthritic Patients
 Despite advances in arthritis medications for dogs, there is more to therapy than giving pills. The more advanced the mobility problems are, the more important physical therapy becomes in maintaining function.
Plague and How Avoid It in You or your Companion Animals
 In April 2011, a dog in New Mexico’s Sante Fe County was diagnosed with plague.
Pneumonia Management in Dogs and Cats
 Most people have heard the term pneumonia and know it is a lung infection of some sort. In fact, pneumonia is not a very specific term and essentially means "lung inflammation of some sort." Pneumonia is an inflammation in deep lung tissues where oxygen is absorbed into the body and waste gases are removed. It has potential to be life-threatening regardless of its cause.
Portosystemic Shunt in Dogs and Cats
 A portosystemic shunt happens when a pet's venous blood from the intestine bypasses the liver. The pet can be born with the shunt or can get it later.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) in Dogs
 Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA) describes a group of inherited degenerative disorders of the retina that occur commonly in dogs and rarely in cats. Dogs eventually become blind, but remain happy and otherwise healthy.
Pruritus Diagnostics in Dogs and Cats
 Itching, or pruritus, is the most common symptom of skin disease in pets. Many conditions can cause a pet to itch, including allergies, fleas, and other skin parasites.
Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs and Cats
 Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is high blood pressure in the arteries leading in and out of your pet's lungs. If the high blood pressure becomes too severe, it can cause disease and failure of the right side of the heart.
Pyelonephritis in Dogs and Cats
 Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidney that frequently shows no symptoms and thus it is not usually recognized until the signs become severe. It may not be diagnosed until histopathology is done on the kidney after the pet's death.
Pyoderma in Dogs and Cats
 Pyoderma is caused by bacterial infection of the skin. The causative organism is almost always Staphylococcus. Bacteria will not usually cause disease on normal skin, but other underlying skin diseases cause some changes in the skin surface making it susceptible to infection, leading to pyoderma.
Pyometra in Dogs and Cats
 Pyometra is the life-threatening infection of the uterus that generally occurs in middle-aged to older female dogs in the 6 weeks following heat. A uterus with pyometra swells dramatically and is filled with pus, bacteria, dying tissue, and toxins. Without treatment, the pet is expected to die.
Pyothorax in Dogs and Cats
 Pyothorax is one of those conditions where prognosis is reasonably good (assuming the patient is not too far gone at the time of presentation) as long as aggressive treatment is pursued. If one tries to go with inexpensive alternatives to proper treatment, a poor outcome is likely.
Pythiosis (Oomycosis, Lagenidiosis, Swamp Cancer, Bursatti, Leeches) in Dogs, Cats and Horses
 Pythiosis occurs in dogs and horses more often than in cats.
Rabies in Animals
 Descriptions of rabies go back thousands of years as rabies has classically been one of the most feared infections of all time. Rabies is a serious disease, but fortunately it can also be easily prevented in dogs and cats by proper vaccination.
Rat Poison's Effect on Dogs and Cats
 There are several types of rodenticides available. The traditional products are called anticoagulant rodenticides and are discussed here. If one intends to use a rodenticide we encourage you to choose this type over others as there is a readily available antidote for the anti-coagulant rodenticides. Other rodenticides are more toxic and no antidote is available.
Rattlesnake Bites in California
 Rattlesnakes can be found in rural areas as well as suburban areas where there is sufficient natural habitat. In Northern California snakes will hibernate during cold months and are active March through September. In Southern California they are active all year round. Photographs of rattlesnakes native to California are shown.
Renal Anemia, or Inadequate Red Blood Cells, in Dogs and Cats
 There are three important ways in which the kidney patient loses red blood cells. The first way is bone marrow suppression. The second way is bleeding. The third way is called hemodilution. Maintaining a stable red blood cell quantity keeps the patient energetic and spirited and is crucial to staying alive.
Reverse Sneezing in Dogs
 Reverse sneezing is a disconcerting event in which a dog makes unpleasant respiratory sounds that sound like it is dying -- or will die in the next few minutes. However, reverse sneezing is a simple condition that usually does not need any treatment.
Rhinitis in Dogs and Cats
 Rhinitis is the inflammation of the mucous membrane in the nose. It can occur by itself or as part of an upper respiratory illness/infection.
Ringworm Environmental Decontamination in Homes of Dogs and Cats
 Infected dogs and cats will shed fur containing dermatophyte fungal spores into the home environment. This fur can re-infect dogs and cats and make it difficult to treat the dermatophyte infection.
Ringworm in Dogs and Cats
 Ringworm is not a worm at all but a fungal infection of the skin. It is contagious to humans, too. This FAQ provides answers.
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Dogs
 Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. This intracellular parasite is transmitted to dogs through the bite of an infected tick.
Roundworms in Dogs and Puppies
 This common parasite can cause diarrhea and vomiting in cats and dogs, and some pet owners become very concerned when their pet expels a worm up to 7 inches in length. Roundworms are also one of the few dog or cat parasites that can be dangerous when transmitted to humans.
Roundworms in Humans
 This common parasite can cause diarrhea and vomiting in cats and dogs, and some pet owners become very concerned when their pet expells a worm up to 7 inches in length. Roundworms are also one of the few dog or cat parasites that can be dangerous when transmitted to humans.
Runny Eyes (Epiphora) in Dogs
 Many dogs and cats have tear-stained faces from chronic excessive tears. Why is this and why is this problem considered one of the hardest to solve in veterinary ophthalmology?
Ruptured Cranial Cruciate Ligaments in Dogs
 The ruptured cruciate ligament is the most common knee injury of dogs. Chances are that any dog that suddenly has rear leg lameness has a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament. The history usually involves a rear leg suddenly so sore that the dog can hardly bear weight on it. If left alone, it will appear to improve over the course of weeks but the knee will be notably swollen and arthritis will set in quickly. Dogs can be presented in either the acute stage (shortly after the injury) or in the chronic stage (weeks or months later).
Salmon Poisoning in Dogs
 Despite its name, salmon poisoning does not involve a toxin. Salmon poisoning is an infection that develops when dogs eat raw fish (salmon, trout, or steelhead) or Pacific Giant Salamanders that contain a fluke that contains a certain rickettsial organism.
Sarcoptic Mange (Scabies) in Dogs
 Also called scabies, sarcoptic mange mite infection is extremely itchy and contagious. While difficult to diagnose, this condition is usually easy to treat.
Sarcoptic Mange in Dogs
 Sarcoptic mange is a very itchy disease caused by a small mite not visible to the naked eye. Areas where the mites tend to burrow under the skin include the tips of the ears, elbows, hocks, chest and belly. However, in a severe infestation, mites can cause problems on the animal's entire body.
Seasonal Flank Alopecia in Dogs
 With seasonal flank alopecia, a dog loses hair in the flank area on a seasonal basis. Different dogs seem to choose different seasons to lose their hair (fall and spring are popular) and when the season changes the hair generally grows back.
Sebaceous Adenitis in Dogs
 Sebaceous adenitis is inflammation of the sebaceous glands. Biopsy is required for diagnosis.
Seborrhea - Keratinization Disorders: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic.
 Seborrhea can present in several different forms. It can be seen as excessive flaking and extremely dry skin, or odiferous greasy scale and yellow brown adherent oil deposits, or a combination of the two.
Seborrhea in Dogs
 Dogs with seborrhea have excessive scaling and flaking of the skin.
Seizure Disorders in Dogs
 Any involuntary behavior that occurs abnormally may represent a seizure. Seizures may be caused by situations within the brain (such as trauma or infection) or by situations centered outside the brain (such as low blood sugar, circulating metabolic toxins, or external poisons).
Senility in Dogs
 Treatments that may help improve cognitive dysfunction include L-Deprenyl, dietary changes, and environmental enrichment.
Separation Anxiety in Dogs Can Present a Disaster
 The worst cases of separation anxiety present an unlivable disaster for the pet owner. The animal becomes destructive, soils the house, and vocalizes loudly and unabashedly and, since the behavior occurs almost exclusively when the pet is alone, there is nothing to stop him from creating a spectacular mess and annoying the neighbors every time the owner steps out.
Splenic Masses in Dogs (Splenectomy)
 Occasionally spleens grow masses. These are generally either benign or malignant tumors. In dogs, most splenic masses are either hemangiomas or hemangiosarcomas. What does the spleen do and what happens when it is removed?
Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Cats
 The oral squamous cell carcinoma does not spread as you normally think of a cancer spreading, but it is so locally invasive that it carries a poor prognosis. The only hope of good survival comes from early detection. Learn what to look for and what important risk factors are.
Steroid Use in Dogs and Cats
 There has never been a class of drug that has more application in disease treatment than the glucocorticoid class. Indeed, this group is rivaled only by antibiotics in lives saved. But side effects from the glucocorticoid group are numerous and can be classified into those seen with short-term use and those seen in long-term use.
Strangles in Puppies
 Puppy strangles is a classic but fortunately uncommon disease of puppies less than 4 months old. It causes acute swelling of the muzzle as well as blistering pimples on the face and inner ear flaps. If left untreated it can be fatal and despite the extreme inflammation, infection is not the problem.
Subaortic Stenosis in Dogs
 Subaortic stenosis, known as SAS, is the most common congenital heart disease of large breed dogs. When a puppy with SAS is born, the stenosis is very small, barely a ridge near the valve, but over the first six months of life the stenosis grows and the murmur (hopefully) becomes more apparent.
Syringomyelia in Dogs
 Syringomyelia pertains to the central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord. Anyone contemplating ownership of a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel should know what it means.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) in Dogs
 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a fairly rare chronic and potentially-fatal autoimmune disease.
Tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum) in Dogs and Cats
 Noticing something like grains of rice that move, something that looks like sesame seeds in your pet's bedding? Where do tapeworms come from, how can you eliminate them, and why do they come back?
Tetanus in Pets (Lock Jaw)
 Most people don't know much about tetanus, also called lock-jaw. In fact, pets are fairly resistant to infection, which is why tetanus shots are not included in the standard vaccine series. So what should a dog owner know about tetanus?
Thrombocytopenia in Dogs and Cats
 If your pet has a condition called thrombocytopenia, his platelet count is low. When the platelet count is low, it is harder for clotting to occur.
Tick Paralysis in Pets
 Tick paralysis is caused by neurotoxins secreted in saliva by certain species of female ticks. Death can occur in untreated dogs from paralysis of the respiratory muscles.
Tracheal Collapse in Dogs
 The patient is almost always a toy breed dog, especially poodles, Yorkshire terriers, and Pomeranians. The disease usually becomes problematic in middle age but can occur at any age. The cartilage defect that leads to the flattened C rings seems to be hereditary.
Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Dogs and Cats
 The transitional cell carcinoma is a particularly unpleasant tumor of the urinary bladder that usually grows in the lower neck of the bladder, causing a partial or complete obstruction to urination. Bloody urine and straining to urinate are typically the signs noted by the owner.
Transmissible Venereal Tumors in Dogs
 The transmissible venereal tumor, affectionately known as the TVT, may be visible as an external fleshy growth or may simply present as genital bleeding. The tumor is common where there are large numbers of roaming dogs or in shelter situations.
Tremoring or Shivering in Dogs
 Tremors can involve only certain muscles or body areas or the entire dog. Finding the reason behind tremors is tricky as tremoring occurs for many reasons.
Umbilical Hernias in Puppies and Kitten
 An umbilical hernia is a condition in which abdominal contents (fat, intestines, etc.) protrude past the abdominal wall at the location where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus.
Urinary Incontinence in Dogs and Cats
 When a house pet develops urinary incontinence, many owners fear the worst. Urinary incontinence is usually one of easiest problems to solve so it is crucial that veterinary assistance be sought before an owner's patience is completely worn out.
Urinary Tract (Bladder) Infection in Dogs and Cats
 The urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common ailments in small animal practices.
Vaccine Allergic Reactions in Dogs and Cats
 Immunization represents stimulation of the immune system, an inherently inflammatory process. Vaccination reactions severe enough to produce shock are extremely rare and are a function of an individual pet's immune response.
Vaginitis in Puppies
 Puppy vaginitis is a sticky, cloudy, white or yellowish vaginal discharge.
Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) in Dogs and Cats
 The fungus lives only in one area: the Lower Sonoran life zone. An animal or person who is sick is not contagious; infection is only through inhalation of a fungal spore released from dirt but only a few spores are necessary for infection to occur.
Vascular Accidents (Strokes) in the Brains of Dogs and Cats
 Most of us know that stroke involves some kind of blood clot lodging or forming somewhere and plugging an important blood vessel, preventing an important area from receiving circulation.
Vestibular Disease in Dogs and Cats
 Most people think their pet has had a stroke, but in fact a problem with the vestibular apparatus is to blame. The vestibular apparatus is the neurological equipment responsible for perceiving one's body's orientation relative to the earth (determining if you are upside-down, standing up straight, falling etc.).
Viral Papillomas of Dogs
 Most everyone knows that dogs get warts, but did you know that some of these warts are infectious? Find out what they are and how to deal with them.
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-Like Syndrome in Dogs
 True VKH syndrome is a human disease, well described for nearly a century. A similar disease in dogs has been described but since we do not know the relationship between the canine and human disease, we are hesitant to call the canine version VH syndrome as well. Until we know what is really going on in the dog, we will leave it at VK-H-LIKE syndrome or, more accurately, uveodermatologic syndrome.
Von Willebrand's Disease in Dogs
 Von Willebrand's disease is an inherited blood clotting defect and breeds at high risk should be screened before being allowed to breed.
Whipworm Infection in Dogs and Cats
 The whipworm of dogs is substantially smaller than the other worms (a mere 30-50 mm in length, about a half inch maximum). The "head" (or more accurately the digestive end of the worm) is skinny vs. its stout tail (or reproductive end) which gives the worm a whip shape, hence the name.
Xylitol Poisoning in Dogs
 Xylitol is potentially lethal to dogs. It doesn't take many sticks of gum to poison a dog, especially a small dog. Symptoms typically begin within 30 minutes and can last for more than 12 hours.
Zinc Poisoning in Dogs and Cats
 Now that pennies are made of zinc instead of copper, swallowing them can be harmful to your pet. Many veterinarians are unaware of this syndrome and do not realize that pennies are far more than a simple foreign body. This is a recently described disease and many questions are still unanswered.

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