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General Topics

Most of our pharmacy section concerns specific medications; however, there are other topics that pertain to the pharmacy. We have separated them out for easier selection. These topics concern the actual administration of medicines, sources of unusual medicines, and other topics that are more general in scope. Please browse our list.


Afoxolaner (Nexgard)
 Nexgard kills fleas and ticks only and has no activity against intestinal worms or heartworm. A prescription is necessary.
Allopurinol (Zyloprim)
 There is one reason to use allopurinol: to reduce uric acid in the blood stream.
Atenolol (Tenormin)
 Atenolol is a beta blocker and has been designed to block the heart's beta-one receptors while leaving the beta-two receptors of other tissues alone.
Benazepril (Lotensin)
 Benazepril is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, also called an ACE inhibitor or simply an ACEI. Benazepril effectively acts as a dilator of blood vessels.
Bethanechol Chloride (Urecholine, Myocholine)
 Bethanechol chloride works to strengthen the detrusor muscle's contraction. If the lower sphincter is too tight from an upper motor neuron injury, this medication will help the bladder to contract harder to overcome it. If the bladder is flabby, this medication will help it regain some shape and strength so that it can empty in a controlled fashion rather than just leaking.
Budesonide (Entocord, Uceris)
 How nice it would be to have a corticosteroid that could be applied to the site of the inflammation but not be absorbed into the body systemically! This is the idea behind budesonide.
Capromorelin (Entyce)
 Capromorelin is meant to stimulate hunger throughout the course of illness (not intermittently). When the patient's appetite is at a desirable level, capromorelin can be withdrawn.
Cisapride (Propulsid)
 One of the stomach's most important functions is to grind the food we eat into a fine slurry that will pass through the intestines freely. A strong rhythm of contraction is necessary to effect this and this rhythm creates the stomach's motility. Cisapride is thus an excellent alternative to those patients who have unacceptable side effects with metoclopramide.
Clopidogrel Bisulfate (Plavix)
 In the past, the only medication option was low dose aspirin to inactivate platelets, the blood cells responsible for clotting blood.
Colchicine (Colcrys)
 Colchicine is used in scarring diseases such as hepatic cirrhosis and in abnormal protein depositions such as amyloidosis.
Compounding Pharmacies Can Help
 Sometimes the medication that your pet needs was designed for people and does not come in a form convienient for a cat or dog. A compounding pharmacy has the ability to reformulate the medication so that your pet may actually be willing to take it!
Diltiazem (Cardizem)
 Diltiazem is most commonly used in the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats.
Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (Lomotil, Lonox, Lomanate)
 Despite its inability to produce recreational euphoria, diphenoxylate hydrochloride is actually a member of the opiate class of drugs. One beneficial effect is an increase in general muscle tone of the small intestine. Increasing tonus means more absorption of water and nutrients and less diarrhea.
Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid (Amicar)
 EACA and its ability to help maintain stable blood clots has other applications.
Erythropoietin
 Erythropoietin is the hormone responsible for inducing red blood cell production by the body's bone marrow. A dose of erythropoietin lasts about a day but its effect is seen approximately five days later when the red cell proliferation it has induced is mature enough for release into circulation.
Famciclovir (Famvir)
 Famciclovir helps treat herpesvirus infections in cats.
Fenbendazole (Panacur)
 Fenbendazole (often abbreviated "FBZ") is used in both large and small animals. In dogs, it is useful against roundworms, hookworms, and the more difficult to treat whipworms.
Flea and Tick Control Products for Dogs and Cats
 The comparison charts - one for dogs, one for cats - allows side-by-side glimpse of available products so you can determine what is best for your pets.
Glargine (Lantus) and Detemir (Levemir) Insulin
 Diabetic remission is about good regulation early on rather than having a magic product. Cats that have been diabetic for some time tend not to experience remission and if your cat is well-regulated on another insulin, it is not worth changing and having to re-regulate your cat.
Heartworm Information Center: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic.
 Heartworm is a parasite that most dog owners and many cat owners have to be concerned about. The more you know, the better protected your pet can become. We have put together an information center to take you through the parasite's biology, the preventive medications, diagnosis, and treatment.
Hyperthyroidism Center for Cats: You are being redirected to updated information on this topic.
 Hyperthyroidism is the most common hormone imbalance of cats. This center of linked articles reviews the physiology of the condition, its diagnosis, and the pros and cons of the treatment options.
Hyperthyroidism Medication for Cats (Methimazole)
 The most common medication prescribed to treat feline hyperthyroidism is called methimazole (trade name Tapazole or Felimazole).
Ibuprofen Toxicity in Dogs and Cats
 Ibuprofen is felt to be too toxic for safe use in pets at any dose but if a pet is lucky, exposure will not have reached the toxic dose but it may not take much given that the typical non-prescription pill contains 200 mg.
Incurin / Estriol (Incurin)
 Estriol, which has been available to dogs in other countries for at least a decade, is relatively new for this use in the U.S.
Interferon (Intron A, Alferon N)
 Interferons are generally produced in the body in response to viral infections and have antiviral activity as well as immunostimulating properties.
Lactulose
 Lactulose is primarily used as a stool softener or in the treatment of liver patients.
Maropitant Citrate (Cerenia)
 Maropitant citrate is a strong anti-nausea medication for dogs.
Medications for Degenerative Arthritis in Dogs and Cats
 Arthritis pain causes discomfort and loss of mobility in aged pets, and there are numerous remedies on the market. Which ones can be combined? Which are proven reliable and which may only work in some individuals?
Mirtazapine (Remeron)
 The side effects make mirtazapine a desirable medication for animals. It has strong anti-nausea properties and acts as a strong appetite stimulant.
Omeprazole (Prilosec, GastroGard)
 Omeprazole represents a different tact from other antacids: proton pump inhibition. The quantity of acid ultimately amounts to the quantity of protons. The proton pump is central to secreting acid into the stomach and with this pump inhibited, stomach acid production is halted.
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
 To assist in the treatment of canine parvovirus infection, oseltamivir is given orally twice a day for 5 days. The medication should be obtained as soon as the parvo diagnosis is confirmed. Usually an oral suspension is compounded or the human product is given. This medication is not approved for use in small animals.
Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium (Elmiron, Cartrophen)
 Pentosan polysulfate sodium can be used in acute feline lower urinary tract disease to facilitate the resolution of the episode. It is more commonly recommended as an on-going therapy to prevent future episodes. The jury is still out as to whether or not it is effective.
Pentoxifylline (Trental)
 Pentoxifylline is used to enhance healing in chronic ulcerative conditions such as dermatomyositis of collies and shelties and has been helpful in treating allergic reactions caused by physical contact with the allergen (i.e., contact allergic dermatitis). Ear margin vasculitis (blood vessel inflammation) can also be treated with pentoxifylline.
Pilling a Cat
 Many cats know you are waiting to see the licking motions and will try to fool you. If the pill is still in the mouth when you check, just reach a finger in and tip the pill further back on the tongue or allow the cat to spit the pill out and begin again.
Pimobendan (Vetmedin)
 Pimobendan is the first drug of a new class of heart medications called inodilators. When used with other cardiac medications, pimobendan can be effective for dogs with congestive heart failure related to either dilated cardiomyopathy or degenerative mitral valve disease.
Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan (Adequan)
 In treating arthritis, injections are given twice a week for 4 weeks for a maximum of eight injections. Injections are given intramuscularly. Dogs, cats, and horses are the usual patients. There is another use for this medication and that is in the treatment of feline lower urinary tract disease.
Ponazuril
 Ponazuril represents a new approach to treatment for coccidia, which can cause potentially life-threatening diarrhea.
Prazosin (Minipress)
 Numerous conditions make urination difficult: idiopathic cystitis in cats, tumors of the bladder, even spinal disease. Medications help relax the urethra to make it easier to urinate. Prazosin has become popular for this use and has long been used to treat heart disease as well.
Pyrantel Pamoate (Strongid T, Nemex)
 Pyrantel pamoate is effective against numerous parasitic worms, such as roundworms, hookworms, and stomach worms. When a new puppy or kitten is adopted and has been said to have been dewormed, the chances are it is this product that was used.
Ranitidine (Zantac)
 Ranitidine is useful in any situation where stomach irritation is an issue and ulceration is a concern. It is often used in the treatment of Helicobacter infection, inflammatory bowel disease, canine parvovirus, ingestion of a toxin that could be ulcerating (over dose of aspirin, for example), any disease involving protracted vomiting, or chronically in combination with medications which may have stomach irritating properties.
S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe, Denosyl, Novifit, Vetri-SAMe, Zentonil, Denamarin)
 In veterinary medicine, this product is chiefly used in liver disease.
Silymarin (Milk Thistle)
 Silymarin is regularly used for an assortment of liver diseases including cirrhosis and viral hepatitis in humans.
Spinosad (Comfortis)
 Spinosad is an ultra-fast flea killing tablet that lasts an entire month for dogs and cats.
Steroid Use in Dogs and Cats
 There has never been a class of drug that has more application in disease treatment than the glucocorticoid class. Indeed, this group is rivaled only by antibiotics in lives saved. But side effects from the glucocorticoid group are numerous and can be classified into those seen with short-term use and those seen in long-term use.
Subcutaneous Fluids Can Be Given at Home for Dogs and Cats
 Lots of animals require extra fluids, either temporarily or indefinitely, to insure that they receive adequate hydration. The technique is simple, but sometimes daunting to the beginner. Here is a pictured guide to assist with the learning experience of giving subcutaneous fluids to your pet at home.
Telmisartan (Semintra, Micardis)
 This medicine works by further inhibiting the effects of angiotensin. It is new to veterinary use but is being used more and more for this situation.
Terbutaline Sulfate (Brethine)
 Airway dilation is helpful in situations such as bronchitis and asthma.
Treatment of Pituitary Form of Cushing's Syndrome
 Excess thirst, excess urination, excess appetite, poor hair coat and a pot-bellied appearance are the hallmarks of the classical disease called Cushing's.
Ursodiol (Actigall)
 Ursodeoxycholic acid is one of the bile acids produced by the Chinese black bear and it has been used in the treatment of liver disease for centuries. Nowadays, it is produced in the laboratory rather than extracted from bear gall bladders.

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